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By clicking register, I agree to your terms. All rights reserved. Design by w3layouts. Dogs have a relationship with humans unlike that of any other domestic animal. As result, most of the emphasis on behavioral genetics in veterinary medicine has been on dogs, and that bias is reflected in this article. Dog breeds represent pools of canalized genetic variation. Historically, they have been the result of many generations of selection for certain specific tasks, and therefore it is no accident that dogs bred for conformation may have more reliable looks than behaviors, and that those bred for work may have more reliable performance than looks.

Understanding this pattern and how it shapes modern genetics is important for veterinarians who wish to provide the best information about genetic factors contributing to behavior. All phenotypes what the behavior looks like are influenced by the genetic, physical, and maternal in utero and rearing environments. This fact is why even littermates from tightly tested and controlled breeding lines can be so variable eg, one is terrified of storms and the other is not. The genetic background the genotype or genomic code of the patient only tells what could happen in terms of behavior and personality, not what will happen.

The genotype is a catalog of coded sequences of instructions, not all of which will be activated, used, or expressed. This concept is essential because it means that behavior is not deterministic. Even when diseases are heritable in a simple manner, their phenotypes and presentations can be altered through interaction with the environment.

Nowhere is this truer than for behavior: it occurs when pharmacologic treatment and behavior modification are used for behavioral problems, and when problems are prevented simply because the patient is in a household that may not promote them.

Unfortunately, misconceptions about determinism and the role of genetics have driven myths about breed-based behaviors and unfortunate breed-specific legislation. Given these limitations, on what should we focus with respect to behavioral genetics?

All behaviors are the result of the interaction of the genetic background with the physical and cognitive environments found in the individual patient.

The concept of a response surface can help practitioners understand how patterns of behavior can individually vary with exposure to different environments depending on genetic background.

The response surface in Fig. In Fig. Their responses to different environmental manipulations will expose how they are different. As dog A is exposed to a range of environments from right to left on the environmental axis, she remains unchanged; however, when dog B is similarly exposed, her behaviors alter dramatically B1 in Fig.

Behavioral Genetics Fig. A response surface for a series of expressions of a behavioral trait across different genetic and physical environments. A and B represent dogs whose behaviors seem the same same color , but for whom the genetic and environmental contributions to their behaviors are vastly different. From Overall KL. Vet J ;; with permission. Two dogs, A and B, who look alike in their behaviors. The underlying contribution of their genes to their behavior differs here, and when exposed to a series of environments, one of them alters her behavioral response surface considerably patient B1 when compared with the other patient A.

This difference in response suggests that the underlying mechanisms which are genetically determined in this example for the 2 responses differ. A and B displayed the same behavioral phenotype in one environment, but they are not the same genetically and therefore do respond differently to different environments, such as tasks, training, and interventions. Manual of clinical behavioral medicine for dogs and cats.

St Louis MO : Elsevier; A diagnosis is almost never a phenotype, but it can help to develop the characterization of one. When done well, using rigorous criteria, behavioral diagnoses provide probabilistic associations among behaviors, pathology, and environment that can be represented using some kind of a decision tree reflecting possible outcomes.

In behavior, diagnosis must rely on some objective representation of the behavior eg, behavioral types, responses, transitions, and counts taken from video , evaluated over different contexts. Because many behaviors and behavioral sequences are nonspecific, they can only be interpreted within a context provided by the interaction of pattern sequence of behaviors, duration, frequency, intensity , associated physiology, and species, breed, and ontogeny-typical behaviors.

The more tightly these distinctions cluster, and the more diverse the measures of the clusters eg, behavioral assay, plus physiologic assay, plus provocative test , the better the phenotype. The concepts of temperament, personality,15 and character16 have been used to identify breeds or individuals suitable for specific behavioral tasks. However, using the dogs as working dogs in trials measured as the amount of merits of the breeding stock from working dog trials correlated positively with playfulness and aggressiveness in sires.

These results were significant, regardless of breed. How the dog is used matters; breeding for different criteria eg, for conformation vs field or other working trials causes changes in the breed. Certain personality traits may render humans vulnerable to psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders. One nervous strain of pointer dogs was more fearful than a stable strain from 2 months of age to maturity in dogs whose rearing environment and handling had been the same.

Breed task affected the form of the OCD for many breeds: German shepherds almost always spun and chased their tail. Breeding for different personality criteria may result in extremes of the selected behavior or unintended covariance with other undesired traits ie, a focused working dog who also has OCD.

Behavioral Genetics A genetic association has been identified for Doberman pinschers exhibiting one form of OCD, flank sucking,24 and an association has been suggested for Border collies and profound noise reactivity. More than offspring of these dogs were examined at 5 weeks of age, and the distribution of behaviors was similar to that in the adult populations; dogs who consistently withdrew from humans were readily identified, suggesting a heritable component to the fearful condition.

Hilliard and Burghardt27 noted that the age at which they identified unsuccessful dogs differed from that at which they identified successful ones, and that these ages were not independent of breed. In one Japanese guide dog program, Heart rate combined with behavioral scores at 3 months help to identify distractible dogs.

Assessment of behavior must minimally meet 3 quality requirements14,36, standardization, reliability, and validity of selection procedures. These assessments represent a scientific standard that allows evaluation of how believable and consistent the data are, and whether similar data can be collected from other groups and compared in a meaningful way across groups.

For this to happen, the test must also be sensitive so true behavioral differences can be assessed objectively, with only small variation in assessment among the assessors. All of these requirements have been problematic, but the one that has been evaluated least often is validity. Validity refers to how well a test measures and reports on the behaviors the test intends to measure.

Validity assessment can be tricky for behavior, because what Overall et al something is labeled may adversely affect its ability to be measured. In a comparison of specific behaviors exhibited by dogs subjected to an established temperament test, De Meester and colleagues40 found that fearfulness on one subtest did not predict either the presence of fearfulness or how it appeared on another, related subtest. Contextually characteristic responses of the individual dogs were more important than was the subtest in determining the form of the fear.

The better subgroups of fear or problematic aggression can be characterized, the more likely genetic associations for undesirable traits within the breed or breeding program can be identified. Well-characterized trait subgroups may contain useful and easily recognizable phenotypes for identifying genetic regions associated with an enhanced risk of developing a problematic condition.

If these desired behaviors are well defined and closely related to the test content, predictive ability can be as high as Predictive validity is enhanced when measures are specific and accurate. Failure to identify specific behaviors that are well defined and closely related to the test content may be the single most worrisome aspect of most canine evaluations, especially if the concept of drive is involved.

At best, tests assessing drive measure clusters or correlates of traits of interest, but they seldom measure any trait in a manner that would be useful to geneticists who require a useful phenotype.

When scores are used to assess behavior, the only way to assess whether dogs with lower scores perform worse than those with higher scores is to follow the dogs across time. Given that behaviors may change with development, tests hoping to identify behaviors that are valid and may be heritable should be evaluated for the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

The sensitivity of a test is the probability that positive dogs test positively. The specificity of the test is the probability that negative dogs test negatively. The positive predictive value PPV of the test is the number of true positives, Behavioral Genetics compared with the total number of positives; the negative predictive value NPV of the test is the number of true-negatives compared with the number identified as negative. The external referent is the actual bite to a human.

The tests used were scored based on specific behaviors and their frequencies during timed intervals. Van der Borg and colleagues47 found a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the test of 0. The low sensitivity of the test was attributed to the decision to classify dogs as aggressive if they bit only once, coupled with the weak ability of the test to detect some types of aggression. The PPV of the test was approximately 0. De Meester and colleagues40 compared subtests with the entire test and likewise found a low PPV aggression by the dog during the test was not helpful for determining behavior later.

The small sample of studies using validity criteria seem to support convergent validity of behavioral assessments in adult dogs, but evidence for discriminant validity when a measure does not correlate with other measures with which it should not be associated is generally lacking.

This discussion about measuring behavior shows why behaviors or phenotypes for accurate genetic assessment are so difficult to identify. The next section discusses the effect of these measures on heritability assessments. This article focuses only on quantitative and molecular genetics.

In fact, some of the changes in canine traits that were selected would be selected against if dogs would evolve merely under natural selection eg, breeds that can only deliver puppies through Caesarian sections, behaviors such as severe compulsive behavior and extreme aggression or fearfulness.

Heritability estimates pertain only to the population studied, not to the individual or any specific genetic region associated with any behavior or trait.

Heritability estimates will not identify whether a certain dog has certain genes, and therefore cannot provide tests for genetic markers, but they can help change the frequency of a condition in a population of dogs. Although heritability estimates calculated for any trait in one population eg, boldness in Swedish Rottweilers cannot be used as heritability estimates in another population eg, Finnish golden retrievers , estimates for the same behavioral trait in different breeds should provide valuable information on the general heritability of particular traits, if the traits are evaluated in the same way.

Heritability values vary from 0 no genetic variation to 1 all differences in a trait reflect genetic variation. Generally, heritability estimates larger than 0.

Heritability estimates of 0. In general, heritability estimates for behavior are usually lower than for morphologic traits,66 and it should be considered that the extent to which this is true may be because of the failure to define clear, quantifiable behavioral measures, and therefore these estimates should be evaluated discretely within tests that can be validated. It is also important to remember that low h2 values means that a small proportion of the observed differences in a particular population are caused by variation in genotypes, and not necessarily that the trait is not heritable.

Fearfulness seems to have higher heritabilities in the breeds examined, with h2 estimates from 0. Yes, but in the absence of continuous measures h2 analysis, and discrete behavioral analyses, one should assume nothing. Behavioral Genetics Aggressiveness has been long known to have a strong genetic component, and aggressive and nonaggressive mouse strains have been bred for decades. Dam heritability was greater than that of the sire 0. Although diagnoses should not be considered phenotypes, they can identify patterns of behavior that can be quantified, and may help create subsequent assessments that can be validated.

Given the ongoing effort in selective breeding and the number of breeds involved, one would expect various aspects of hunting behavior to have high heritability. Liinamo and colleagues75 found h2 values of 0. Similarly, studies investigating heritability for different aspects of hunting behaviors eg, speed, style, eagerness, cooperation, independence have found low h2 values 0. However, in flat-coated retrievers in Sweden, Lindberg and colleagues77 tested litters dogs of the same age, at the same time, and found high h2 values for hunting excitement 0.

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Metrics details. Total knee arthroplasty TKA is a gold standard for terminal term gonarthrosis patients in order to diminish pain, correct deformities, and regain stability.

Analyzed the data: BN DvdV. Earlier antiretroviral treatment initiation prevents new HIV infections. A key problem in HIV prevention and care is the high number of patients diagnosed late, as these undiagnosed patients can continue forward HIV transmission. Costs and quality adjusted life years QALYs were assigned to each disease state and calculated over 5 year increments for a 20 year period.

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Project Title. Project Subject. Project Year. Executive Unit. Publish Date. The main tasks and objectives thereof are described as follows: 1. Continue to promote the City's drainage basin total pollution control operations pursuant to the policy of Environmental Protection Administration of Executive Yuan, simultaneously test and analyze the City's drainage basin total pollution control area and the nearby area on withstanding water quality, implement the inspection operations, trace and evaluate the improvement of pollutant reduction and withstanding water bodies in the total pollution control area to effectively improve the watershed water quality. Conduct high pollution risk business including sewage system inspection operations focusing on the City's key drainage basin pollution hotspots, areas often petitioned by the people or specific pollution incident areas designated by the Environmental Protection Bureau, organize high pollution risk business including sewage system inspection operations, if necessary, with the use of scientific instruments, the inspection should be combined with management to facilitate manufacturers to promote the pollution control facilities so as to improve the efficiency and operational quality. Re-examine and demarcate the City's pollution hotspots source distribution and structure according to the annual water pollution inspection materials, continue to include them in this year's tracking management reference, organize inspections and banning and in-depth examination targeting the specific pollution incidents occurred in the City and the business list of pollution hotspots, functional evaluation on waste sewage water treatment facilities of restricted businesses in pollution hotspots and follow-up pollution monitoring, tracking and estimating operations. If necessary, use scientific instruments to expose pollution fact and evidence and to curb illegal pollution behavior to gradually improve the pollution of the City's pollution hotspots, rivers and groundwater.

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I ldacsinradig an spcial lists it wilbe noted th t the call number is given to eah ook that has been lasifiedfi a d c ttalogued. Ex ha g ith other library bulletins and] readinglists i. Publici Documents Division, 8 a. A fee of five pesos per annum or fifty centavos per month is arge for the privilege of drawing books from the Circulating Iivision American The pivilege of the periodical and reference rooms are fet All.

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Коммандер, - напомнила Сьюзан, - Хейл однажды уже чуть не угробил нас - с Попрыгунчиком. Танкадо имел основания ему верить. Стратмор замялся, не зная, что ответить. - Отключите ТРАНСТЕКСТ, - взмолилась Сьюзан.  - Мы нашли Северную Дакоту.

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Резервное питание подает слишком мало фреона. - Спасибо за подсказку, - сказал Стратмор.  - У ТРАНСТЕКСТА есть автоматический выключатель. В случае перегрева он выключится без чьей-либо помощи. - Вы сумасшедший, - с презрением в голосе ответил Хейл.  - Мне наплевать, даже если ваш ТРАНСТЕКСТ взлетит на воздух. Эту проклятую машину так или иначе следует объявить вне закона.

Стратмор вздохнул.

Manual Xii. 0; 0. November ; PDF. Bookmark; Embed; Share; Print. Download. This document was uploaded by user and they confirmed that they have the.

Сеньор Ролдан забирал большую часть ее заработка себе, но без него ей пришлось бы присоединиться к бесчисленным шлюхам, что пытаются подцепить пьяных туристов в Триане. А у ее клиентов по крайней мере есть деньги. Они ее не бьют, им легко угодить.

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Голос шефа из смешливого вдруг стал жестким: - Сьюзан, я звоню потому, что ты нужна мне. Срочно. Она попыталась собраться с мыслями.

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ГЛАВА 20 Городская больница располагалась в здании бывшей начальной школы и нисколько не была похожа на больницу. Длинное одноэтажное здание с огромными окнами и ветхое крыло, прилепившееся сзади.

Беккер поднялся по растрескавшимся ступенькам.

Если искомый пароль содержал десять знаков, то компьютер программировался так, чтобы перебирать все комбинации от 0000000000 до 9999999999, и рано или поздно находил нужное сочетание цифр.

- Слово элемент имеет несколько значений. - Какие же, мистер Беккер? - спросил Фонтейн. Все остальные встретили слова Беккера недоуменным молчанием.

- Элементы! - повторил Беккер.  - Периодическая таблица.

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Он улыбнулся, стараясь ее успокоить. - С Дэвидом все в порядке. Просто мне приходится быть крайне осторожным. В тридцати футах от них, скрытый за стеклом односторонней видимости Грег Хейл стоял у терминала Сьюзан.

Черный экран. Хейл бросил взгляд на коммандера и Сьюзан, затем достал из кармана бумажник, извлек из него крохотную каталожную карточку и прочитал то, что было на ней написано.

Еще раз убедившись, что Сьюзан и коммандер поглощены беседой, Хейл аккуратно нажал пять клавиш на клавиатуре ее компьютера, и через секунду монитор вернулся к жизни.

Компьютер висел уже почти двадцать часов. Она, разумеется, знала, что были и другие программы, над которыми он работал так долго, программы, создать которые было куда легче, чем нераскрываемый алгоритм. Вирусы.

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